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diff-delta.c
/*
 * diff-delta.c: generate a delta between two buffers
 *
 * This code was greatly inspired by parts of LibXDiff from Davide Libenzi
 * http://www.xmailserver.org/xdiff-lib.html
 *
 * Rewritten for GIT by Nicolas Pitre <nico@fluxnic.net>, (C) 2005-2007
 *
 * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation.
 */

#include "git-compat-util.h"
#include "delta.h"

/* maximum hash entry list for the same hash bucket */
#define HASH_LIMIT 64

#define RABIN_SHIFT 23
#define RABIN_WINDOW 16

static const unsigned int T[256] = {
	0x00000000, 0xab59b4d1, 0x56b369a2, 0xfdeadd73, 0x063f6795, 0xad66d344,
	0x508c0e37, 0xfbd5bae6, 0x0c7ecf2a, 0xa7277bfb, 0x5acda688, 0xf1941259,
	0x0a41a8bf, 0xa1181c6e, 0x5cf2c11d, 0xf7ab75cc, 0x18fd9e54, 0xb3a42a85,
	0x4e4ef7f6, 0xe5174327, 0x1ec2f9c1, 0xb59b4d10, 0x48719063, 0xe32824b2,
	0x1483517e, 0xbfdae5af, 0x423038dc, 0xe9698c0d, 0x12bc36eb, 0xb9e5823a,
	0x440f5f49, 0xef56eb98, 0x31fb3ca8, 0x9aa28879, 0x6748550a, 0xcc11e1db,
	0x37c45b3d, 0x9c9defec, 0x6177329f, 0xca2e864e, 0x3d85f382, 0x96dc4753,
	0x6b369a20, 0xc06f2ef1, 0x3bba9417, 0x90e320c6, 0x6d09fdb5, 0xc6504964,
	0x2906a2fc, 0x825f162d, 0x7fb5cb5e, 0xd4ec7f8f, 0x2f39c569, 0x846071b8,
	0x798aaccb, 0xd2d3181a, 0x25786dd6, 0x8e21d907, 0x73cb0474, 0xd892b0a5,
	0x23470a43, 0x881ebe92, 0x75f463e1, 0xdeadd730, 0x63f67950, 0xc8afcd81,
	0x354510f2, 0x9e1ca423, 0x65c91ec5, 0xce90aa14, 0x337a7767, 0x9823c3b6,
	0x6f88b67a, 0xc4d102ab, 0x393bdfd8, 0x92626b09, 0x69b7d1ef, 0xc2ee653e,
	0x3f04b84d, 0x945d0c9c, 0x7b0be704, 0xd05253d5, 0x2db88ea6, 0x86e13a77,
	0x7d348091, 0xd66d3440, 0x2b87e933, 0x80de5de2, 0x7775282e, 0xdc2c9cff,
	0x21c6418c, 0x8a9ff55d, 0x714a4fbb, 0xda13fb6a, 0x27f92619, 0x8ca092c8,
	0x520d45f8, 0xf954f129, 0x04be2c5a, 0xafe7988b, 0x5432226d, 0xff6b96bc,
	0x02814bcf, 0xa9d8ff1e, 0x5e738ad2, 0xf52a3e03, 0x08c0e370, 0xa39957a1,
	0x584ced47, 0xf3155996, 0x0eff84e5, 0xa5a63034, 0x4af0dbac, 0xe1a96f7d,
	0x1c43b20e, 0xb71a06df, 0x4ccfbc39, 0xe79608e8, 0x1a7cd59b, 0xb125614a,
	0x468e1486, 0xedd7a057, 0x103d7d24, 0xbb64c9f5, 0x40b17313, 0xebe8c7c2,
	0x16021ab1, 0xbd5bae60, 0x6cb54671, 0xc7ecf2a0, 0x3a062fd3, 0x915f9b02,
	0x6a8a21e4, 0xc1d39535, 0x3c394846, 0x9760fc97, 0x60cb895b, 0xcb923d8a,
	0x3678e0f9, 0x9d215428, 0x66f4eece, 0xcdad5a1f, 0x3047876c, 0x9b1e33bd,
	0x7448d825, 0xdf116cf4, 0x22fbb187, 0x89a20556, 0x7277bfb0, 0xd92e0b61,
	0x24c4d612, 0x8f9d62c3, 0x7836170f, 0xd36fa3de, 0x2e857ead, 0x85dcca7c,
	0x7e09709a, 0xd550c44b, 0x28ba1938, 0x83e3ade9, 0x5d4e7ad9, 0xf617ce08,
	0x0bfd137b, 0xa0a4a7aa, 0x5b711d4c, 0xf028a99d, 0x0dc274ee, 0xa69bc03f,
	0x5130b5f3, 0xfa690122, 0x0783dc51, 0xacda6880, 0x570fd266, 0xfc5666b7,
	0x01bcbbc4, 0xaae50f15, 0x45b3e48d, 0xeeea505c, 0x13008d2f, 0xb85939fe,
	0x438c8318, 0xe8d537c9, 0x153feaba, 0xbe665e6b, 0x49cd2ba7, 0xe2949f76,
	0x1f7e4205, 0xb427f6d4, 0x4ff24c32, 0xe4abf8e3, 0x19412590, 0xb2189141,
	0x0f433f21, 0xa41a8bf0, 0x59f05683, 0xf2a9e252, 0x097c58b4, 0xa225ec65,
	0x5fcf3116, 0xf49685c7, 0x033df00b, 0xa86444da, 0x558e99a9, 0xfed72d78,
	0x0502979e, 0xae5b234f, 0x53b1fe3c, 0xf8e84aed, 0x17bea175, 0xbce715a4,
	0x410dc8d7, 0xea547c06, 0x1181c6e0, 0xbad87231, 0x4732af42, 0xec6b1b93,
	0x1bc06e5f, 0xb099da8e, 0x4d7307fd, 0xe62ab32c, 0x1dff09ca, 0xb6a6bd1b,
	0x4b4c6068, 0xe015d4b9, 0x3eb80389, 0x95e1b758, 0x680b6a2b, 0xc352defa,
	0x3887641c, 0x93ded0cd, 0x6e340dbe, 0xc56db96f, 0x32c6cca3, 0x999f7872,
	0x6475a501, 0xcf2c11d0, 0x34f9ab36, 0x9fa01fe7, 0x624ac294, 0xc9137645,
	0x26459ddd, 0x8d1c290c, 0x70f6f47f, 0xdbaf40ae, 0x207afa48, 0x8b234e99,
	0x76c993ea, 0xdd90273b, 0x2a3b52f7, 0x8162e626, 0x7c883b55, 0xd7d18f84,
	0x2c043562, 0x875d81b3, 0x7ab75cc0, 0xd1eee811
};

static const unsigned int U[256] = {
	0x00000000, 0x7eb5200d, 0x5633f4cb, 0x2886d4c6, 0x073e5d47, 0x798b7d4a,
	0x510da98c, 0x2fb88981, 0x0e7cba8e, 0x70c99a83, 0x584f4e45, 0x26fa6e48,
	0x0942e7c9, 0x77f7c7c4, 0x5f711302, 0x21c4330f, 0x1cf9751c, 0x624c5511,
	0x4aca81d7, 0x347fa1da, 0x1bc7285b, 0x65720856, 0x4df4dc90, 0x3341fc9d,
	0x1285cf92, 0x6c30ef9f, 0x44b63b59, 0x3a031b54, 0x15bb92d5, 0x6b0eb2d8,
	0x4388661e, 0x3d3d4613, 0x39f2ea38, 0x4747ca35, 0x6fc11ef3, 0x11743efe,
	0x3eccb77f, 0x40799772, 0x68ff43b4, 0x164a63b9, 0x378e50b6, 0x493b70bb,
	0x61bda47d, 0x1f088470, 0x30b00df1, 0x4e052dfc, 0x6683f93a, 0x1836d937,
	0x250b9f24, 0x5bbebf29, 0x73386bef, 0x0d8d4be2, 0x2235c263, 0x5c80e26e,
	0x740636a8, 0x0ab316a5, 0x2b7725aa, 0x55c205a7, 0x7d44d161, 0x03f1f16c,
	0x2c4978ed, 0x52fc58e0, 0x7a7a8c26, 0x04cfac2b, 0x73e5d470, 0x0d50f47d,
	0x25d620bb, 0x5b6300b6, 0x74db8937, 0x0a6ea93a, 0x22e87dfc, 0x5c5d5df1,
	0x7d996efe, 0x032c4ef3, 0x2baa9a35, 0x551fba38, 0x7aa733b9, 0x041213b4,
	0x2c94c772, 0x5221e77f, 0x6f1ca16c, 0x11a98161, 0x392f55a7, 0x479a75aa,
	0x6822fc2b, 0x1697dc26, 0x3e1108e0, 0x40a428ed, 0x61601be2, 0x1fd53bef,
	0x3753ef29, 0x49e6cf24, 0x665e46a5, 0x18eb66a8, 0x306db26e, 0x4ed89263,
	0x4a173e48, 0x34a21e45, 0x1c24ca83, 0x6291ea8e, 0x4d29630f, 0x339c4302,
	0x1b1a97c4, 0x65afb7c9, 0x446b84c6, 0x3adea4cb, 0x1258700d, 0x6ced5000,
	0x4355d981, 0x3de0f98c, 0x15662d4a, 0x6bd30d47, 0x56ee4b54, 0x285b6b59,
	0x00ddbf9f, 0x7e689f92, 0x51d01613, 0x2f65361e, 0x07e3e2d8, 0x7956c2d5,
	0x5892f1da, 0x2627d1d7, 0x0ea10511, 0x7014251c, 0x5facac9d, 0x21198c90,
	0x099f5856, 0x772a785b, 0x4c921c31, 0x32273c3c, 0x1aa1e8fa, 0x6414c8f7,
	0x4bac4176, 0x3519617b, 0x1d9fb5bd, 0x632a95b0, 0x42eea6bf, 0x3c5b86b2,
	0x14dd5274, 0x6a687279, 0x45d0fbf8, 0x3b65dbf5, 0x13e30f33, 0x6d562f3e,
	0x506b692d, 0x2ede4920, 0x06589de6, 0x78edbdeb, 0x5755346a, 0x29e01467,
	0x0166c0a1, 0x7fd3e0ac, 0x5e17d3a3, 0x20a2f3ae, 0x08242768, 0x76910765,
	0x59298ee4, 0x279caee9, 0x0f1a7a2f, 0x71af5a22, 0x7560f609, 0x0bd5d604,
	0x235302c2, 0x5de622cf, 0x725eab4e, 0x0ceb8b43, 0x246d5f85, 0x5ad87f88,
	0x7b1c4c87, 0x05a96c8a, 0x2d2fb84c, 0x539a9841, 0x7c2211c0, 0x029731cd,
	0x2a11e50b, 0x54a4c506, 0x69998315, 0x172ca318, 0x3faa77de, 0x411f57d3,
	0x6ea7de52, 0x1012fe5f, 0x38942a99, 0x46210a94, 0x67e5399b, 0x19501996,
	0x31d6cd50, 0x4f63ed5d, 0x60db64dc, 0x1e6e44d1, 0x36e89017, 0x485db01a,
	0x3f77c841, 0x41c2e84c, 0x69443c8a, 0x17f11c87, 0x38499506, 0x46fcb50b,
	0x6e7a61cd, 0x10cf41c0, 0x310b72cf, 0x4fbe52c2, 0x67388604, 0x198da609,
	0x36352f88, 0x48800f85, 0x6006db43, 0x1eb3fb4e, 0x238ebd5d, 0x5d3b9d50,
	0x75bd4996, 0x0b08699b, 0x24b0e01a, 0x5a05c017, 0x728314d1, 0x0c3634dc,
	0x2df207d3, 0x534727de, 0x7bc1f318, 0x0574d315, 0x2acc5a94, 0x54797a99,
	0x7cffae5f, 0x024a8e52, 0x06852279, 0x78300274, 0x50b6d6b2, 0x2e03f6bf,
	0x01bb7f3e, 0x7f0e5f33, 0x57888bf5, 0x293dabf8, 0x08f998f7, 0x764cb8fa,
	0x5eca6c3c, 0x207f4c31, 0x0fc7c5b0, 0x7172e5bd, 0x59f4317b, 0x27411176,
	0x1a7c5765, 0x64c97768, 0x4c4fa3ae, 0x32fa83a3, 0x1d420a22, 0x63f72a2f,
	0x4b71fee9, 0x35c4dee4, 0x1400edeb, 0x6ab5cde6, 0x42331920, 0x3c86392d,
	0x133eb0ac, 0x6d8b90a1, 0x450d4467, 0x3bb8646a
};

struct index_entry {
	const unsigned char *ptr;
	unsigned int val;
};

struct unpacked_index_entry {
	struct index_entry entry;
	struct unpacked_index_entry *next;
};

struct delta_index {
	unsigned long memsize;
	const void *src_buf;
	unsigned long src_size;
	unsigned int hash_mask;
	struct index_entry *hash[FLEX_ARRAY];
};

struct delta_index * create_delta_index(const void *buf, unsigned long bufsize)
{
	unsigned int i, hsize, hmask, entries, prev_val, *hash_count;
	const unsigned char *data, *buffer = buf;
	struct delta_index *index;
	struct unpacked_index_entry *entry, **hash;
	struct index_entry *packed_entry, **packed_hash;
	void *mem;
	unsigned long memsize;

	if (!buf || !bufsize)
		return NULL;

	/* Determine index hash size.  Note that indexing skips the
	   first byte to allow for optimizing the Rabin's polynomial
	   initialization in create_delta(). */
	entries = (bufsize - 1) / RABIN_WINDOW;
	if (bufsize >= 0xffffffffUL) {
		/*
		 * Current delta format can't encode offsets into
		 * reference buffer with more than 32 bits.
		 */
		entries = 0xfffffffeU / RABIN_WINDOW;
	}
	hsize = entries / 4;
	for (i = 4; (1u << i) < hsize; i++);
	hsize = 1 << i;
	hmask = hsize - 1;

	/* allocate lookup index */
	memsize = sizeof(*hash) * hsize +
		  sizeof(*entry) * entries;
	mem = malloc(memsize);
	if (!mem)
		return NULL;
	hash = mem;
	mem = hash + hsize;
	entry = mem;

	memset(hash, 0, hsize * sizeof(*hash));

	/* allocate an array to count hash entries */
	hash_count = calloc(hsize, sizeof(*hash_count));
	if (!hash_count) {
		free(hash);
		return NULL;
	}

	/* then populate the index */
	prev_val = ~0;
	for (data = buffer + entries * RABIN_WINDOW - RABIN_WINDOW;
	     data >= buffer;
	     data -= RABIN_WINDOW) {
		unsigned int val = 0;
		for (i = 1; i <= RABIN_WINDOW; i++)
			val = ((val << 8) | data[i]) ^ T[val >> RABIN_SHIFT];
		if (val == prev_val) {
			/* keep the lowest of consecutive identical blocks */
			entry[-1].entry.ptr = data + RABIN_WINDOW;
			--entries;
		} else {
			prev_val = val;
			i = val & hmask;
			entry->entry.ptr = data + RABIN_WINDOW;
			entry->entry.val = val;
			entry->next = hash[i];
			hash[i] = entry++;
			hash_count[i]++;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Determine a limit on the number of entries in the same hash
	 * bucket.  This guards us against pathological data sets causing
	 * really bad hash distribution with most entries in the same hash
	 * bucket that would bring us to O(m*n) computing costs (m and n
	 * corresponding to reference and target buffer sizes).
	 *
	 * Make sure none of the hash buckets has more entries than
	 * we're willing to test.  Otherwise we cull the entry list
	 * uniformly to still preserve a good repartition across
	 * the reference buffer.
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < hsize; i++) {
		int acc;

		if (hash_count[i] <= HASH_LIMIT)
			continue;

		/* We leave exactly HASH_LIMIT entries in the bucket */
		entries -= hash_count[i] - HASH_LIMIT;

		entry = hash[i];
		acc = 0;

		/*
		 * Assume that this loop is gone through exactly
		 * HASH_LIMIT times and is entered and left with
		 * acc==0.  So the first statement in the loop
		 * contributes (hash_count[i]-HASH_LIMIT)*HASH_LIMIT
		 * to the accumulator, and the inner loop consequently
		 * is run (hash_count[i]-HASH_LIMIT) times, removing
		 * one element from the list each time.  Since acc
		 * balances out to 0 at the final run, the inner loop
		 * body can't be left with entry==NULL.  So we indeed
		 * encounter entry==NULL in the outer loop only.
		 */
		do {
			acc += hash_count[i] - HASH_LIMIT;
			if (acc > 0) {
				struct unpacked_index_entry *keep = entry;
				do {
					entry = entry->next;
					acc -= HASH_LIMIT;
				} while (acc > 0);
				keep->next = entry->next;
			}
			entry = entry->next;
		} while (entry);
	}
	free(hash_count);

	/*
	 * Now create the packed index in array form
	 * rather than linked lists.
	 */
	memsize = sizeof(*index)
		+ sizeof(*packed_hash) * (hsize+1)
		+ sizeof(*packed_entry) * entries;
	mem = malloc(memsize);
	if (!mem) {
		free(hash);
		return NULL;
	}

	index = mem;
	index->memsize = memsize;
	index->src_buf = buf;
	index->src_size = bufsize;
	index->hash_mask = hmask;

	mem = index->hash;
	packed_hash = mem;
	mem = packed_hash + (hsize+1);
	packed_entry = mem;

	for (i = 0; i < hsize; i++) {
		/*
		 * Coalesce all entries belonging to one linked list
		 * into consecutive array entries.
		 */
		packed_hash[i] = packed_entry;
		for (entry = hash[i]; entry; entry = entry->next)
			*packed_entry++ = entry->entry;
	}

	/* Sentinel value to indicate the length of the last hash bucket */
	packed_hash[hsize] = packed_entry;

	assert(packed_entry - (struct index_entry *)mem == entries);
	free(hash);

	return index;
}

void free_delta_index(struct delta_index *index)
{
	free(index);
}

unsigned long sizeof_delta_index(struct delta_index *index)
{
	if (index)
		return index->memsize;
	else
		return 0;
}

/*
 * The maximum size for any opcode sequence, including the initial header
 * plus Rabin window plus biggest copy.
 */
#define MAX_OP_SIZE	(5 + 5 + 1 + RABIN_WINDOW + 7)

void *
create_delta(const struct delta_index *index,
	     const void *trg_buf, unsigned long trg_size,
	     unsigned long *delta_size, unsigned long max_size)
{
	unsigned int i, outpos, outsize, moff, msize, val;
	int inscnt;
	const unsigned char *ref_data, *ref_top, *data, *top;
	unsigned char *out;

	if (!trg_buf || !trg_size)
		return NULL;

	outpos = 0;
	outsize = 8192;
	if (max_size && outsize >= max_size)
		outsize = max_size + MAX_OP_SIZE + 1;
	out = malloc(outsize);
	if (!out)
		return NULL;

	/* store reference buffer size */
	i = index->src_size;
	while (i >= 0x80) {
		out[outpos++] = i | 0x80;
		i >>= 7;
	}
	out[outpos++] = i;

	/* store target buffer size */
	i = trg_size;
	while (i >= 0x80) {
		out[outpos++] = i | 0x80;
		i >>= 7;
	}
	out[outpos++] = i;

	ref_data = index->src_buf;
	ref_top = ref_data + index->src_size;
	data = trg_buf;
	top = (const unsigned char *) trg_buf + trg_size;

	outpos++;
	val = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < RABIN_WINDOW && data < top; i++, data++) {
		out[outpos++] = *data;
		val = ((val << 8) | *data) ^ T[val >> RABIN_SHIFT];
	}
	inscnt = i;

	moff = 0;
	msize = 0;
	while (data < top) {
		if (msize < 4096) {
			struct index_entry *entry;
			val ^= U[data[-RABIN_WINDOW]];
			val = ((val << 8) | *data) ^ T[val >> RABIN_SHIFT];
			i = val & index->hash_mask;
			for (entry = index->hash[i]; entry < index->hash[i+1]; entry++) {
				const unsigned char *ref = entry->ptr;
				const unsigned char *src = data;
				unsigned int ref_size = ref_top - ref;
				if (entry->val != val)
					continue;
				if (ref_size > top - src)
					ref_size = top - src;
				if (ref_size <= msize)
					break;
				while (ref_size-- && *src++ == *ref)
					ref++;
				if (msize < ref - entry->ptr) {
					/* this is our best match so far */
					msize = ref - entry->ptr;
					moff = entry->ptr - ref_data;
					if (msize >= 4096) /* good enough */
						break;
				}
			}
		}

		if (msize < 4) {
			if (!inscnt)
				outpos++;
			out[outpos++] = *data++;
			inscnt++;
			if (inscnt == 0x7f) {
				out[outpos - inscnt - 1] = inscnt;
				inscnt = 0;
			}
			msize = 0;
		} else {
			unsigned int left;
			unsigned char *op;

			if (inscnt) {
				while (moff && ref_data[moff-1] == data[-1]) {
					/* we can match one byte back */
					msize++;
					moff--;
					data--;
					outpos--;
					if (--inscnt)
						continue;
					outpos--;  /* remove count slot */
					inscnt--;  /* make it -1 */
					break;
				}
				out[outpos - inscnt - 1] = inscnt;
				inscnt = 0;
			}

			/* A copy op is currently limited to 64KB (pack v2) */
			left = (msize < 0x10000) ? 0 : (msize - 0x10000);
			msize -= left;

			op = out + outpos++;
			i = 0x80;

			if (moff & 0x000000ff)
				out[outpos++] = moff >> 0,  i |= 0x01;
			if (moff & 0x0000ff00)
				out[outpos++] = moff >> 8,  i |= 0x02;
			if (moff & 0x00ff0000)
				out[outpos++] = moff >> 16, i |= 0x04;
			if (moff & 0xff000000)
				out[outpos++] = moff >> 24, i |= 0x08;

			if (msize & 0x00ff)
				out[outpos++] = msize >> 0, i |= 0x10;
			if (msize & 0xff00)
				out[outpos++] = msize >> 8, i |= 0x20;

			*op = i;

			data += msize;
			moff += msize;
			msize = left;

			if (msize < 4096) {
				int j;
				val = 0;
				for (j = -RABIN_WINDOW; j < 0; j++)
					val = ((val << 8) | data[j])
					      ^ T[val >> RABIN_SHIFT];
			}
		}

		if (outpos >= outsize - MAX_OP_SIZE) {
			void *tmp = out;
			outsize = outsize * 3 / 2;
			if (max_size && outsize >= max_size)
				outsize = max_size + MAX_OP_SIZE + 1;
			if (max_size && outpos > max_size)
				break;
			out = realloc(out, outsize);
			if (!out) {
				free(tmp);
				return NULL;
			}
		}
	}

	if (inscnt)
		out[outpos - inscnt - 1] = inscnt;

	if (max_size && outpos > max_size) {
		free(out);
		return NULL;
	}

	*delta_size = outpos;
	return out;
}